Beauty Cosmetics

Before applying make up, your skin should be cleansed, toned and moisturised.

Concealer: Apply concealer to any areas that need covering such as, beneath the eyes, over blemishes, redness and pigmentation. If you apply make up over the eyelids the eye make up will last longer.

Foundation: It is best to choose a foundation that is as close to your skin type as possible. Using sponges may give a better result and leave your skin with an even coverage overall.

Face powder: Apply face powder all over your face with a powder brush. Avoid using excessive powder at once as your ski9n may become blotchy. Powder will stop your skin from looking shiny.

Blusher: Apply blush lightly to your cheek bones; it will enhance your cheeks, however, if you apply too much it can appear uneven and spoil the natural look.

Eye liner: Apply eye liner underneath your eyelid and, if necessary, on top. Eye pencils are popular or, using a thin brush, apply eye-shadow. Adding water will create a more liquid effect.

Eye shadow: Eye shadows are available in many different colors and textures and can be applied in many different ways to achieve a variety of effects. Powder eye shadows are most popular and are easy to apply and blend.

Mascara: Apply mascara to both top and bottom eye lashes; black mascara will give the best result. Avoid waterproof mascara if using on a daily basis as your lashes will become brittle.

Eye-brow make up: Apply eyebrow make up if necessary. Eye-brow pencils are great for fine eye brows; they give an excellent coverage and their color stays on effectively. Alternatively, use a fine brush and lightly apply an eye shadow that closely matches the eyebrows.

Lip make up: Outline the lips with a suitable lip pencil; this should closely match your lipstick. Apply lip color in the usual manner.

What to Do When Planning a Charter Trip and Charter Bus Rental of a Motorcoach and/or School Bus

There are many things to consider when planning to rent a charter bus with a professional driver-whether it is a full-size motorcoach, a smaller coach bus, or a school bus. By the way, school bus charters are mostly rented out by the bus operators for strictly local charter trips. In any rate, I would like to outline a few important and essential things to consider and resolve before, during, and after renting a coach or a school bus from any bus rental company. These points to note come from the extensive experience working as a bus company operator and having made, as well as witness many clients make, many mistakes and blunders resulting in charter delays, bus/bus-driver scheduling errors, and other such inconveniences like having no-shows on the day of the charter trip. I realize along with our clients that any charter trip begins and ends with a functional and clean coach/school bus being driven by an enthused and punctual coach bus or school bus driver. There are, however, ways to ensure that all of the logistical fronts are covered for the clients to be satisfied with their chosen charter bus rental company and the bus operating company in turn to be happy with their clients. It all boils down to effective and efficient communication.

Firstly, the relationship between the client and the bus operator begins with the client requesting a charter trip quotation or a charter trip appraisal. There are many things that are taken into consideration before a bus rental company issues a quotation. For example, the season, month, day of the month, bus fleet availability, and the rates given by the 3 largest charter bus rental companies in the industry for a given date-just to name a few. At this stage, the client is strictly focused (like tunnel vision) on getting the best price for the best possible charter bus services. And they rightly should be; however, not at the cost of neglecting their focus on very simple but profound details. Such crucial, albeit simple, details include making sure to submit the exact and correct dates for the charter trip; provide the correct time of departure and arrival; and outline the itinerary details, like extra charter-trip destination stops. Once, these details are provided to the charter bus rental company, the bus operator issues a charter trip quotation with a trip-rate. The client is now at the stage of either accepting the charter bus rental company as their vendor or not. Once the charter bus company is chosen and the client confirms the booking of their respective charter bus (be it coach bus or school bus) a formal trip confirmation is issued by the charter bus rental company to the client.

At this stage, it is crucial to double-check all of the aforementioned “simple” charter trip details. Many times, clients get quoted for a different date than what the trip confirmation states. That is there is a discrepancy between the trip quotation and the trip confirmation. Any bus rental company ultimately goes by their trip confirmations when scheduling and finalizing their bus rentals and schedule. These trip confirmations are also signed by the client upon the finalization of their charter trip booking. In my personal experience, some clients end up not getting their charter bus arriving on the right date. This seems to be a ridiculous mishap and it is. But it all stems from neglecting to focus on the contracted details stated on the trip confirmation.

I plan to continue the series of articles focusing on such logistical details in order to help clients and operators to foresee and overcome such blunders and to ultimately provide a reliable and professional charter bus rental service to our community. Please stay tuned for future publications on how to rent a charter bus and, equally important, how to make sure that all the charter trip logistics are put in place.

Britain’s Fashion Icons

Britain is commonly known for its bad food and bad weather however some of the iconic faces in music, pop culture and fashion come from the island. You can either love them or hate them but surely you know their names and what they do for a living.

One of the biggest bleeps on the fashion radar is certainly Kate Moss. She has managed to bring into fashion the tight waistcoat and the cut off denim shorts and we have to love her for that. Her look is copied over and over again by many young girls (and not only them!). Her style is glamorous and sexy both on the catwalk and in real life. It doesn’t matter if she had a troubled past (which actually made her more popular than she already was) we still love Kate Moss!

Their minutes of fame are long gone but not so many years ago they were considered Britain’s sweethearts. The famous Spice Girls became celebrities not only because of their number one hits but also because of the outfits they wore both on stage and off stage. With their different, strong personalities the five British singers adopted a style for everyone: posh, baby, scary, sporty and ginger spice. Both their fashion choices and their songs (that managed to conquer the whole world) will remain in history

Vivienne Westwood is one of the biggest fashion designers in the world who is also 100% British. The new wave fashion style and the punk style, that are so greatly appreciated by the celebrities and normal people, are her creation. The guys from Sex Pistols where the first celebrities that wore the creations of Vivienne. Her punk fashion style included, among others, safety pins, razors, bicycle chains combined with shocking make-up and hairstyles. However, besides the outrageous outfits she creates and wears, she also has a down to earth side that has captured the interest of some very famous celebrities among which is Sarah Jessica Parker. She has constantly worn Vivienne’s creations in the movie we all love: Sex and the City.

These are just some of the famous people the British can be proud of. They have influenced us and have made us love them!

CNBC Fast Money And The Halftime Report

CNBC Fast Money is a financial talk show in the US mainly discussing stock trading. Since 2007, it is aired every night at 5 pm or an hour after the conclusion of the NYSE. But in 2011, this financial investing TV program was moved to Mondays to Thursday to give way to special programs and forex trading on Fridays. The show is taped in NASDAQ headquarters in New York. After Dylan Ratigan, who is now the host of Fast Money?

Vibrant and dynamic, the panel referred to as the Fast Money Five and host Melisa Lee offers an interactive stock trading talk show. When the trade is closed, Melissa and the Fast five provides input about the significant financial trends and how viewers can gain profit. How can you gain fast cash with this program?

Often visited by experienced traders and panelists, CNBC Fast Money offers valuable insights for viewers who are interested in stock trading and individual or corporate investors searching for crucial information. With interesting segments and program features that provides marker for the most significant pops, drops and notable players in the stock market, this program is directed to the financial world and catered to help traders in the succeeding days. What about the program’s ratings?

The first 13 episodes of CNBC Fast Money in 2006 at Wednesdays 8 pm were very low at estimated 110,000 viewers a week. The program was moved to a new timeslot at 5 pm resulting to its better reception and higher ratings. Viewership has doubled within a few weeks. Then after this 5 pm test, the network re-launched the program back at 8 pm hoping it might have gained footing after the amplified viewership. It failed. Ratings plummeted again. Fortunately CNBC retried the program at 5 pm and had gained its intended viewership for good. What about the Halftime Report?

CNBC Fast Money Halftime Report has similar format but airs after noon. This show debuted in 2010 and was initiated from the segment on CNBC power Lunch. This special edition is hosted by Scott Wagner and airs live from Global HQ in New Jersey. Initially aired as a 30-minute talk show, the halftime Report became a one-hour TV program in 2011 and moved up to the noontime programming. This is the replacement of the cancelled show “The Strategy Session,” which suffered from very low ratings. Individual and corporate traders and investors can watch this show to monitor current trends in the stock trade and get the latest insights from the experts.

Buy Betsey Johnson Shoes On Sale And Add Glamour And Glitter To Your Fashion Style With Comfort

You can find Betsey Johnson shoes on sale at some of the higher-end department stores and some online stores, if you know where to shop. Betsey Johnson has been designing fashion since the mid-60’s, and it’s simply impressive how she continues to design trendy, edgy high-glam styles over the past several decades.

Treat yourself to Betsey Johnson shoes if you’re looking to add some flair and panache to your fashion style! I have three (3) “glam-gorgeous” styles I recommend below that deserve a quick look.

“Ice Pumps”

You can wear these pumps for a special formal evening, or if you just want to dress up a regular day at the office! These heels are so sexy at 4 1/2 inches high, but like all B. Johnson shoes I’ve tried on, they are really comfortable. As the name suggests, they are covered with a ton of sparkle and glitter all around from top to bottom. I’ve received tons of compliments whenever I wear them. I have the black ones, which always offer more versatility, but I’m really considering picking up the gold ones too.

“Wing It Boots”

These boots are totally cute, made with beautiful Suede leather. The styling design is sincerely elegant, trimmed with buttons and scalloped-edging along the side, but there’s a zipper along the inside for easy dressing and comfort. They also have a pretty high-heel at about 4 inches. These look great, and will effortlessly glam up your favorite pair of jeans or skirt in a pinch.

“Walford Open-Toe Pumps”

You have to check out a photo of these really adorable pumps. It’s got a touch of leather, and makes a beautiful feminine statement with three rounds of crystal flower-like buttons presented down the front. The high-heel is about 4 inches high, and it delicately hides a zipper on the back, which makes it very easy to put on and take off. While it comes in black, I think you’ve got to go for the pink pumps!

Finding Betsey Johnson Shoes On Sale

If a Betsey Johnson store is not within driving distance, some of higher-end department stores, such as Nordtsrom and Lord and Taylor carry several styles. You can also find great deals online. Her shoes are very “true-to-size”, so you should have a good experience getting the best fit when you buy from an online store.

Take advantage of great promotions happening this time of year, and also carefully understand return policies. The best online stores offer FREE return shipping, which is very helpful in case your shoes are not a perfect fit.

Home Furniture – Caring For Your Furniture the Safe Way

Many of us spend a small fortune on making our houses comfortable as well as beautiful by buying nice furniture. Thus, it’s only right we look after and maintain the furniture so that we may enjoy it for many years to come. Since most of the furniture within our homes tend to wear out and look worn after only a few years of use, people tend to spend another small fortune only a few years later on new decor for the home, but this can be avoided with some simple maintenance tips.

The first thing to do to give your furniture longevity is to use the right type of cleaners on the right type of surfaces. There are many types of sprays and cleaners available in the supermarket that leave your surfaces germ free and smelling fresh, however, most of these chemicals are fairly harsh and will deteriorate your surfaces and in some cases, they cause even more dirt to be attracted to your furniture. Thus more cleaning will be required. Many of these cleaners may also wear out the natural protective coatings on your leather and wood surfaces.

If you’re thinking that using steam to revive your old furniture or to clean your new ones, think again. The bad thing about steam cleaning is that it can first of all leave excess moisture on your furniture and mold just loves growing especially on damp upholstery. No matter what they tell you on television, steam involves a lot of moisture and it will take a while before your cushions are fully dry. Besides, steam cleaning machines aren’t cheap so stay away from them.

So you might be wondering what the best way to clean your is? Nothing beats a damp cloth for cleaning the hard surfaces backed up with a high quality and strong vacuum cleaner. A quality vacuum will be able to take most of the dirt and dust out of your upholstery and furniture surfaces provided you do it often enough. Normally, once a week of cleaning is sufficient to prevent dirt from sinking deeper down into your furniture’s surface. If you’re going away on a long trip, it’s advisable to cover your couches and expensive decor with plastic sheets, as they’re very good for dust and dirt-proofing.

Drug Abuse and Addition

The world today has become surrounded by drug abuse as well as drug addiction. This escalating disorder has become so common, that its truth is based on misconceptions that people have concerning drug abuse as well as addiction. This paper briefly provides an overview of drug abuse as well as addiction, and at the same time looks at the aspects of epidemiology, social problems, pathophysiology, as well as ethical issues that might arise with medical emergency respondents.

Drug abuse and drug addiction; exactly what does that mean and who is affected by it? There is a confusion between drug addiction and abuse. Drug abuse happens when there is usage of a substance, generally illicit drugs or alcohol, while drug addiction takes place in a broad variety of substances and activities. Addiction can be termed as the compulsive need for usage of substance forming habits, such as alcohol, nicotine and heroin, of which is eventually characterized by obviously physiological signs upon withdrawal as well as tolerance; widely: insistent compulsive use of known substances that are harmful to the user. Drug addiction is usually not a substance forming habit, it also includes things such as gambling, sex, video gaming, and even internet. All the same, the primary focus of society is still to do with drugs, tobacco and alcohol. Several characteristics of pathophysiology and epidemiology will be discussed together with the social implications that addiction causes as well as any ethical problems that lie with addiction and medical emergency service providers.

The addictive behavioral study is relatively new. Science just started to study behavioral addictive in the 1930. Prior to this, studies were being carried out by scientist on drug abuse that were plagued by misconception shadows as well as nature addiction. But with present day discoveries as well as information on how brain chemicals work and the methods of alteration, there is now a deeper understanding of alcohol and drug addiction. Drug addiction, according to Dr. Dryden-Edwards also referred to as chemical dependency or substance dependence, is an illness that is described by a destructive drug abuse pattern that leads to major problems which involve tolerance towards or substance withdrawal and other problems arising from substance use that could have implications to the sufferer, either by school performance, socially or in terms of work. More than 2.5% of humanity suffer from drug addiction at some point in their lives. Some of the commonly abused addictive substances are alcohol, anabolic steroids, amphetamines, cannabis, caffeine, ecstasy, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, nicotine, phencyclidine, opiates, sedatives, anti-anxiety drugs, and or hypnotic. Despite the fact that alcohol and drug addiction is viewed as a mental health issue, there is no one particular determinant cause. However, several people believe that drug addiction and abuse is a genetic disease of which is a false fact. A person’s environment is cause for the development of a predisposition dependency drug.

Epidemiology

The socially associated risk factors of drug addiction and drug abuse encompass the male gender, between the age ranges of 18 and 44 years, heritage of Native American persons, low socioeconomic status as well as the marital status of the unmarried. State statistics reveal that residents from the western U.S are more at risk to substance dependency as well as abuse. While males are very prone to alcoholism development, females seem more vulnerable to alcoholism at fairly lower amounts of alcohol consumption, this is because females have a much lower body mass as compared to males. The combined medical, criminal, economical, as well as the social implications costs American taxpayer more than half a trillion dollars annually. Each year drug and alcohol abuses contributes to 100,000 American deaths, with tobacco contributes approximately 440,000 deaths annually. Individuals of all ages suffer the damaging consequences of drug as well as alcohol addiction and abuse. Babies can get affected while within the mother’s womb if the mother is to engage in drug or alcohol use, which as a result causes defects in birth as well as slows down the intellectual development in the later years of the child. As for Adolescents, they usually perform poorly in school and usually drop out while they are abusing drugs. Adolescent girls stand the risk of having unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and violence. In addition, parents and adults are also affected, usually by having their cognitive abilities clouded. With all the vast exposure, the stage has easily been set for the next generation to simply step into the addictive lifestyle.

Pathophysiology

Drug addiction primarily affects the brain, but also affects the flow of a person’s organ systems. Drugs as well as mind changing substances which can be abused usually target the body’s natural system of reward either willingly or unwillingly causing entire euphoric effects for the drug user. These effects arise from the dopamine, which is a regulated neurotransmitter movement, emotion, cognition, motivation and pleasure feelings. The release of Dopamine is naturally rewarded to the body for natural behaviors as well as initiations for the cycle to repeat the behavior all over. The dopamine neurotransmitter fills the reward system that is often concealed in restricted amounts from routine activities such as sex or eating. The brain perceives this as a life-sustaining action as a result of the activated reward system. On introducing the chemical substance within a person’s system and the euphoric effects are realized, a person’s brain takes note of several significant happening events and teaches itself to do this action repeatedly until it is a habit. The consumption of illicit drugs can cause an individual to impulsively act when the brain’s reasoning system would normally delay or prevent a form of given action.

This reasoning system is circumvented, hence leading to the undesired action that can possibly have negative consequences on the drug user’s life. However, several drug effects as well as chemical substances are at times euphoric, and other times the substance causes depression, suicidal thoughts, and paranoia. Continuation of the drug causes the brain to become acclimatized to the surplus of dopamine within the reward system. This then leads to the decrease of dopamine release as well as the dopamine receptors numbers within the system itself. In turn, this affects the user’s ability to attain the desired effects of the drug usage. This response from the person’s brain causes the person to try and reactivate the receptors by adding the dosage or amount of the drug in order to attain the same dopamine high. This effect process is referred to as a tolerance. Long term drug abuse causes changes to occur to other systems parts within the brain. The neurotransmitter glutamate of which is a part of the reward systems can be changed and hence cause learning inability. When the brain reaches the maximum level of glutamate, it causes an off balance and the brain tries to compensate, of which as a result affects the drug user’s cognitive ability. Once the brain accustoms to the drug effects, dependence is made and drug abuse cessation causes a result known as withdrawal. While most withdrawal signs are very uncomfortable for the drug addict, there are several serious signs such as seizures, strokes, myocardial infraction, delirium tremens, and hallucinations.

Social, Ethical issues as well as the impact on emergency medical services (EMS)

The consequences of drug abuse and addiction are very evident in an individual social life. The addictions destructive behavior affects every area of their personal life, right from the genesis of the drug abuse. The addictions symptoms from a physical perspective include alteration of sleeping patterns as well as eating habits, which in turn contribute to both weight gain as well as loss. Frequent drug abuse tends to lead to failure in meeting important responsibilities at work, school or even home. Other drug addiction effects include domestic violence, family disintegration, child abuse, employment loss, and failure in school. People with addiction engage in risk taking, and with alterations in the reward system within the brain, the drug users expect positive reactions prior to them taking the substance that would satisfy their needs for the risks they take. Impulse control is difficult when drug choice is available to people with addiction. As a result this fuels the addiction even more.

The effect of the emergency medical service is immense. The calls from addiction range from medical overdosage to trauma. The emergency medical provider’s obligation in response to overdosed patients requires paramedics to find out how much as well as what the patients took, and what is the correct medication to give in order to reverse the condition that is being experienced by the patient or drug user. With the various emergency responses comes danger, with the possibility of violent outbreaks by the addicts or users. Therefore, paramedics must be aware of their surroundings while handling the patients. In addition, patients who experience withdrawals tend to hallucinate a complete event as well as incorporate the paramedics, thus causing the patient to react violently towards the care provider. Drug addiction is a very serious condition that can be considered as a psychiatric problem, of which needs to be treated with a sure diligence as well as suspicion.

Within the realm of the emergency medical service, the response rate of addiction is not considered an emergency condition. The incident will arise if an addict is experiencing withdrawal violent signs or has substance overdose, and the patient would appear in a state of agitation or even unconsciousness. There is no prearranged method in handling a patient that is experiencing problems related to addiction. The key element is in treating the symptoms of the patient. All patients require supplementary oxygen through non rebreathe if tolerance is acceptable. To assist in flushing out a normal saline of infusion, obtaining of intravenous access is a must. Should a patient or addict be in a state of agitation or seizure, administration of a sedative is required, such as versed or valium. Caution must be taken when administrating benzodiazepines because of the risks regarding failure or respiratory depression is present. Should a patient experiencing an opiate overdose as well as low breathing, Narcan 0.4 – 2 milligrams must be administered, but caution must be observed when administering the drug of which is done slowly in order for the patient to breathe sufficiently so as to sustain life. Should breathing and airway problems continue then intubation must be considered in order to secure the airway of the patient. Quick transport with due concern is suggested in order for the patient to be evaluated so as to have the hospital staff commence detoxification.

Conclusion

The drug abuse and addiction world is unforgiving and harsh, especially if an addict or user is unwilling to leave it behind. A number of people claim that the addiction is all within the head, and research has verified this notion. The brain effects from a formed learned pattern is similarly rewarded to such activities like drinking or eating.

A lot of people do not comprehend as to how and why other people become drug addicts. It is wrongfully presumed that drug users have no willpower or moral principles and cannot stop using drugs simply by choosing to alter their behavior. The reality is, drug addiction and abuse is a complex illness, and quitting it requires lots of good intentions. In actual fact, because drugs alter the brain in ways that raise drug abuse compulsiveness, quitting becomes hard, even for the willing addicts.

A lot of drug users also believe that they can control their drug abuse and addiction. Having a drug habit is a costly affair that leads to loss of belongings, money and even self-esteem. Curiosity is what drives some people abuse drugs, while others it is peer pressure, and another group of people become addicts of prescription drugs. While drug abuse normally leads to drug addiction, overcoming drug addiction is no easy task. So the question begs, is this drug abuse or is this drug addiction? These are two completely separate paths that lead to the same depressing outcome. In addition, the consequences of drug abuse as well as drug addiction become noticeable after a given period of time whereby compulsiveness and violence take over, furthermore, the physical toll which includes illness and depression at times could be debilitating. Therefore, the only method to reducing drug abuse as well as addiction is through educating or sensitizing the public. Avoidance is viewed as the best prevention.

Making an Educated Decision on Your Next Automated Plasma Shape Cutting Machine

Whether you are a first time buyer or have existing installations of plasma and/or oxy-fuel shape cutting systems, continuous advancements in technology and a growing landscape of low-cost manufacturers and integrators has clouded the automated plasma shape cutting machinery landscape.

Plasma cutting is the result of introducing an electrical arc through a gas that is blown through a nozzle at high pressure, causing the gas to turn into plasma and producing a focused flame that reaches temperatures of 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit. Automated plasma cutting systems are classified as either conventional or precision (high-definition), based on the characteristics of the cutting flame. Precision plasma systems are capable of producing parts to tighter tolerances, achieving faster cut rates, and producing less kerf and bevel than conventional plasma systems. The cost of these units can also be significantly higher than conventional plasma systems. It is therefore extremely important to properly match the shape cutting machine with the appropriate plasma cutting system.

One of the most common and costly pitfalls buyers encounter is when manufacturers or integrators mismatch machines and power sources. This is often the result of manufacturers not taking the time to understand the buyer’s requirements, having a limited or single-product line of machines, limited OEM access to power sources, and/or a lack of industry/application knowledge. These manufacturers will then often sell with a focus on lowest price instead of lowest cost of ownership, highlighting the strong point of the plasma system or the machine without regard to the limitations of the other. The best precision plasma power source available will not provide users with the desired cut quality and accuracy if it is not mated to an appropriate base machine.

There are many types of plasma shape cutting machines available in the market today. The most common machines are bridge or gantry style machines made from either fabricated steel or extruded aluminum. Construction of the machine is extremely important relative to your application. Machines constructed of extruded aluminum are typically considered to be hobbyist or artisan machines and most appropriate when doing a limited amount of cutting or when cutting light gauge materials. The plasma and oxy-fuel cutting processes create large amounts of heat which is retained in the materials being cut and can cause deflection or warping of aluminum machine components traveling over the hot cutting surfaces, greatly effecting accuracy and cut quality. Fabricated steel machines are highly recommended for any type of continuous cutting process, cutting of plate steel, and where auxiliary oxy-fuel torches may be used. Auxiliary heat shields may also be available to further protect the machine and components from extreme heat conditions.

Cutting machines are available with a variety of drive systems including single-side drive, single-motor dual-side drive, and true two-motor dual-side drive systems. A well constructed single-side drive system or single-motor dual-side drive system will perform extremely well in conventional plasma applications. The benefit of the extra precision offered by two-motor dual-side drive systems will not be realized in conventional plasma applications due to the limitations in the precision of the conventional plasma cutting process itself. Two-motor dual-side drive systems will provide the accuracy and performance required to achieve optimal results from a precision plasma process.

Sizing of the motors and gear boxes relative to the mass of the machine is also extremely important. Undersized motors and gearboxes will not be able to effectively change the direction of the mass of the machine at high traverse and cut speeds, resulting in un-uniform cut quality and washed-out corners. This not only affects the cut quality, but will also lead to premature mechanical failures.

The CNC control is the unit that ties together all of the functionality and features of the machine and plasma source. There are basically two classes of controls used on most of these machines today. Most industrial applications use industrial PC-based control systems such as those produced by Burny or Hypertherm. These units have user-friendly touch screen control panels and are housed in enclosures that can stand up to the harsh environments they operate in. Smaller machines of the hobbyist or artisan types often utilize standard PCs with I/O cards to control the drives and plasma systems. Industrial based controls are highly recommended for any application, are designed for industry specific requirements, are less prone to the typical PC problems, but can be cost prohibitive in smaller applications.

Another important, and often overlooked, feature to consider when selecting a machine is the construction of the rail system. Plasma cutting machines produce and reside in a harsh environment. It is therefore important that the components used in the construction of the rail system be robust enough to exist in this environment. All rail surfaces should be constructed of hardened materials and cleaned frequently so that they do not become pitted and gouged by the splatter of molten steel that will inevitably fall on them. Self-cleaning wheels are also a recommended feature to keep the wheels clean between regular preventive maintenance (PM) cycles. Sizing of the rails should also be robust enough to prevent deflection as the machine travels across them.

The combination of all of the above factors results in the precision and accuracy of a system. Unlike other mechanical machining processes, it is difficult to assign a standard tolerance to plasma cutting processes. Many manufacturers will strongly promote the fact that their machines have positional accuracy of +/-0.007 in. and repeatability of +/-0.002 in.. The fact is that just about any machine on the market can hold tolerances that far exceed the tolerance and capability of the plasma cutting process itself. There are many factors that will influence the cut quality you will achieve on your parts including: the characteristics of the part itself, power settings, consumables, gases used, material type, gauge/thickness of material, part layout on plate, etc.. Ask the manufacturer to provide you with cut samples of your parts or parts that closely approximate the parts you will be cutting, made on a machine/plasma combination that is comparable to what you are looking at. This will give you the most realistic representation of what to expect from a specific machine/plasma combination and the plasma cutting process itself.

Before talking to any cutting machine manufacturer, clearly identify your requirements:

  1. Identify the types of materials will you be cutting with your system (ferrous/non-ferrous, mild steel, stainless steel, aluminum, etc.).
  2. Identify the range of material thicknesses you will be cutting.
  3. If you will be cutting a variety of materials and thicknesses, estimate the percentage of each type and identify the primary types and thicknesses.
  4. Determine the size (length, width, and thickness) of plate you will be purchasing in order to properly size the table, effective cutting area, and weight capacity of your new system.
  5. You may also want to look to the future in anticipation of any future types and sizes of materials you may need to process. The upfront cost of anticipating these requirements may be substantially less than upgrading or retrofitting your system in the future.
  6. Identify the tolerances you will need to maintain. This will help determine whether you need a conventional or precision plasma system, as well as the type and construction of the base machine.
  7. Determine how many hours-per-day and days-per-week the machine will be operated. This will determine the type of base machine construction you will need, help estimate the cost of operation, and allow you to compare the cost/benefit of consumables life of various manufacturer’s power supplies.
  8. Determine how you will exhaust your equipment. Water tables do not require exhaust systems, but down-draft tables do. If there is an existing exhaust system in place, identify the capacity of the system in cubic feet per minute (CFM).
  9. Determine if you will need the flexibility to expand the system or add additional plasma and/or oxy-fuel cutting stations in the future. Some machines are capable of only carrying one or two torches, while others can accommodate slave stations for up to a combination of 10 plasma and oxy-fuel torches. Likewise, some machines have fixed cutting areas while others can be extended in length to increase cutting area or accommodate multiple cutting tables.
  10. Define the area in your facility where the machine will be located. Make note of any obstructions, hazards, or access points that will need to be taken into consideration when laying out the new system. Also, identify how your material will be handled in and out of the area (forklift or crane, aisle locations, etc.).
  11. Identify the power you have available, both voltage and amperage.

A reputable manufacturer should ask you for most of this information before making any proposals on a system. If a manufacturer does not have this information, they cannot adequately evaluate your requirements and propose a system that will best work for you and your specific application. Spending the time to identify your requirements up front will not only save you countless hours of frustration resulting from living with the wrong machine, but also save you money by not over- or under-buying a system to meet the requirements of your specific application.

Shifting Fashion Style From Summer To Winter: Pashmina

Winter weather doesn’t have to mean parting ways with feminine and colorful fabrics of summer months. In fact, it can be a time to let your imagination run wild and indulge in one of the most sensuous cloths – Pashmina. If you learn to wrap, tie, drape, and swaddle in some creative ways you will love Pashmina. It’s a tried and true fabric for accentuating almost any fall outfit with some vibrant colors.

Persian pashm or cashmere wool has been made for thousands of years in the Himalayan regions of Nepal and India by the local people. Pashmina comes from a special breed of goat – the pashmina goat. It thrive on high mountains of Himalaya in India and nepal. These goats shed their winter coats every spring, provide luxurious wool the seed for Pashmina. Local craftsmen then hand-spin, weave and embroider some of the worlds most beautiful shawls and scarves.

Pashmina most often serves the pragmatic need of keeping us warm during those winter months, However, pashminas can also be used to enhance many outfits to add a dash of color with functionality. Consider, you are rushing out of work or to meet a date at the nearby restaurant with no time to change? Add a bold color to otherwise a boring business suit with a contemporary pashmina scarf around your neck. Attending a dinner for two at an upscale restaurant across town, wrap your bare shoulders in a luxurious embroidered pashmina shawl before walking out the door. Heading out for a fun fall day of window shopping and walking around town? Dress up your casual outfit with a matching but more ornate pashmina, gently draped around your neck and shoulders.

If these examples don’t inspire your inner fashionista to run out and buy a pashmina in every shade imaginable, there are some less obvious but also creative uses to consider. Are you planning a fall wedding? colorful pashminas make original and practical gifts for your bridesmaids. You can buy them all in the same shade to go with the bridesmaids dresses, or mix and match for a more trendy and modern wedding party. The holiday season is upon us, and you know it takes time to plan what gift to give to your best friend and to your mother – Pasmina shawls would satisfy the most demanding of your fashion loving friends. For a newborn baby photoshoot, swaddle your precious budle of joy in a bright color, soft pashmina for some striking pictures.

We saved the best of the last, most pashminas are fairly inexpensive, so you can opt to buy a few and use them in all the different ways we discussed above, or let your creative thought meander away to see what you come up with! So, as summer greens fade into warm autumn tones, color your outfits with a vibrant pashmina. The fashionista in you will love it.